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ACRE - A unit of land measurement, 43,560 square feet or 10 square chains. A square acre measures 208.7 feet on each side.

AD VALOREM TAX - Taxes assessed by the local government on the basis of land or timber value. In Georgia, land is taxed annually and timber is taxed when it is sold or harvested.

AFFORESTATION - The conversion of a different land cover to a forest. Generally it is planting of seedlings in a pasture or cropland.

ANNOSUS ROOT ROT - A fungus that kills trees by decaying the bark and wood of the roots and root collar. It can be spread most easily in the winter months during thinning or other management operations.

ARTIFICIAL REGENERATION - Establishing a new forest by planting seedlings or by direct seeding.

BACKFIRE - A fire intentionally set to move against the wind and "back" into an area to subdue a wildfire or for management purposes.

BASAL AREA - (1) Of a Tree: The cross-sectional area (in square feet) of the tree trunk at breast height (4 1/2 feet above the ground). Basal area of a tree is computed using the following formula: B A (ft2) = PI x r2 Where: BA = basal area, PI = 3.1415 and r = radius of tree in ft. For example, the basal area of a tree 14 inches in diameter at breast height is about 1 square foot (BA=3.1415 x (7/12)2. (2) Of an acre of Forest: The sum of the basal area of individual trees on a single acre of forest land. Basal area is used to measure stocking adequacy of a forest stand.

BEDDING - A site preparation technique whereby a small ridge of surface soil is formed to provide an elevated planting or seed bed. It is used primarily in wet areas to improve drainage and aeration for seedlings.

BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (BMP) - A practice, or combination of practices, that is determined after problem assessment and examination of alternatives, to be most effective, practical means of preventing or reducing the amount of pollution generated by non-point sources to a level compatible with water quality.

BIOMASS - Biomass is a term used to describe woody plants marketed as fuel wood. The total volume of plant material excluding foliage growing on a given area of land. Coppiced hardwood plantations, as well as poor growth cut-over hardwood stands, are often used as sources of biomass fuel.

BOARD FOOT - A lumber measurement defined as being a piece of sawn wood measuring 1 inch X 1 foot X 1 foot. The term is also used as a measure when estimating the amount of lumber in trees, sawlogs, and veneer logs. Board foot volume in a piece of lumber is determined by: RF = ("length in feet X width in inches X thickness in inches)_ 12

BOTTOM LANDS - Lands, usually flood plains, adjacent to a river or watercourse. This land is often highly productive for both pine and hardwoods, but can often be difficult to manage and harvest because of drainage problems.

BROAD-BASED DIP - Also called a rolling dip, this is a surface drainage structure specifically designed to tip water out of a dirt road while vehicles maintain normal haul speeds.

BUCK - To cut a harvested tree into sections for merchandising. Pulpwood and sawtimber trees are bucked in different lengths to maximize their product potential.

COMBINATION THINNING - The practice of doing both a row thinning and a selective cut together. This is common during a 1st thinning.

DBH - is an abbreviation meaning Diameter at Brest Height. Four and half feet is the standard height to determine trees DBH.

LIVE CROWN - The part of a tree where live branches begin.

LIVE CROWN RATIO - The height of the live crown divide by the total height of the tree. Trees generally are thinned when the live crown ratio falls under 35. So if trees are 45 feet tall and the live crown is 16, it is most likely getting time to thin. [45/16]x100=35.5

POLLUTION - Substance which makes another substance unclean, dirty, or impure.

PULPWOOD - Wood cut or prepared primarily to make wood pulp, paper, fiberboard, or other products Trees over 5 DBH that are unsuitable for sawtimber because of size, crook, or other defect are sold as pulpwood.

REFORESTATION - Re-establishing a forest by planting, seeding or natural regeneration methods on a harvested tract of land.

REGENERATION - (1) To re-establish a stand of timber, and (2) The seedlings that have been re-established on a harvested site.

ROTATION (Period) - The period of time to establish, grow and harvest a crop of trees at a specified condition of maturity.
S.A.F. - Society of American Foresters. A professional organization of trained foresters.

ROW THINNING - commonly done to remove the third, fourth, or fifth row in a timber stand. This is only done on planted pines tracts during the 1st thinning.

SALVAGE CUT OR THIN - Harvesting dead trees or those in danger of being killed (by insects, disease, flooding, etc.) to save their economic value.

SANITATION CUT OR THIN - Harvesting or killing trees infected or highly susceptible to insects or diseases to protect the rest of the forest stand.

SAPLINGS - Live trees of commercial species that are 1.0" to 5.0" in diameter at breast height and of good form and vigor.

SAPWOOD - The light colored wood closest to the bark on a tree trunk cross-section. The sapwood is composed of cells and serves to conduct water and minerals from the roots to the crown. Under most conditions, the sapwood is more susceptible to decay than heartwood.

SAWLOG - A log meeting minimum standards of diameter, length, and defect, including logs at least 8' long, sound and straight, and with a minimum diameter inside bark for softwoods of 6" (8" for hardwoods) or other combinations of size and defect.

SAWTIMBER TREES - Trees containing at least one 12' sawlog or two separate 8' sawlogs, and meeting mill specifications for quality. Softwood trees must be at least 9" DBH and hardwood trees 1 1 " DBH to be considered sawtimber trees.

SEEDLING - A young tree less than 1 .0 inch in diameter. Seedlings are usually less than three years of age.

SEED TREE HARVEST - A type of regeneration harvest where between 5 and 10 trees are left per acre to provide a seed source on the harvested tract. Trees left for seed should be of superior quality, healdiy, and vigorous seed producers. In most cases, the old stand is partially removed in a single harvest cut that leaves only the seed trees standing. These remaining trees are left for three to seven years until the stand of seedlings become established from seed. After the new stand is established, the seed trees are harvested, leaving the young seedlings to produce a new even-aged stand of timber.

SELECTIVE THINNING - The removal of individual trees within a stand. These trees are often genetically weak and may have cankers or be forked. Selective thinning is most often done with row thinning during a first harvest.

SHELTERWOOD CUT - Similar to the seed tree harvest, the shelterwood cut leaves between 30 and 40 trees per acre on a tract to act as a seed source. The greater number of trees reduces the chance of loss or damage through windthrow and insures better seed dispersal. In addition, when the timber is harvested the landowner can expect to receive more money because of the greater volume available for harvest.

THINNING - The calculated removal of timber from an existing stand with predetermined objectives in mind. Thinning is done to promote the growth and development throughout the life of the timber on a tract. It also protects from the infestation of pine beetles or other insects that can be harmful to timber and cause it to die. Wildlife in the area will also benefit from thinnings of a tract of timber.


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